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Gardnerella vaginalis

Gardnerella Vaginalis

Definition Gardnerella vaginalis is the name of a micro-aerophilic coccobacillus found in the vaginal flora. Gardnerella vaginalis does not cause bacterial vaginosis (vaginal infection) unless...
Acetic Acid

Acetic Acid

Definition Acetic acid is a mildly corrosive monocarboxylic acid. Otherwise known as ethanoic acid, methanecarboxylic acid, hydrogen acetate or ethylic acid, this organic compound is...
Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Definition Amino acids are the building blocks of polypeptides and proteins and play important roles in metabolic pathway, gene expression, and cell signal transduction regulation....
BCAA supplements: a muscle myth?

Branched Chain Amino Acids

Definition The branched-chain amino acids or BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three of the nine nutritionally essential amino acids. These three ingredients form a...
Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric Acid

Definition Sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) is a corrosive mineral acid with an oily, glassy appearance that gave it its earlier name of oil of vitriol....
Bile salt action in the gut

Bile Salts

Definition Bile salts are found in bile, a secretion produced by liver cells to aid digestion. Although bile is 95% water, bile salts are its...
The salivary glands

Submandibular Gland

Definition Submandibular glands are the second-largest salivary gland type, producing around 65% of our saliva when unstimulated (at rest). Located under the jaw, the exocrine...
Metaphase I

Metaphase I

Definition The first metaphase of meisosis I encompasses the alignment of paired chromosomes along the center (metaphase plate) of a cell, ensuring that two complete...
Prophase II

Prophase II

Definition During prophase II of meiosis II, four important steps occur. These are the condensing of chromatin into chromosomes, disintegration of the nuclear envelope, migration...


Definition Aldosterone (C21H28O5) is a mineralocorticoid hormone compound secreted by the adrenal gland cortex. It is part of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system or RAAS...

Pathogenic Fungus

Pathogenic fungi make people and other organisms sick and can kill them. For humans, about 300 pathogenic species of fungi are known. Some of them are Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis and Stachybotrys. One example of Cryptococcus is Cryptococcus neoformans which causes severe meningitis in people who are infected with HIV or have AIDS.

The skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and genital-urinary tract are areas of the body that often become infected with pathogenic fungi. People with higher levels of monocytes/macrophages, invariant natural killer (iNK) T-cells and dendritic cells have a better chance of controlling a fungus infection and preventing it from spreading throughout the body.

Aspergillus terreus
The image above shows Aspergillus terreus. This pathogenic fungus causes infections of the ears, skin, nails and lungs of people with compromised immune systems.


  • Pathogenic Fungus. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 9, 2018 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogenic_fungus