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Gardnerella vaginalis

Gardnerella Vaginalis

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Acetic Acid

Acetic Acid

Definition Acetic acid is a mildly corrosive monocarboxylic acid. Otherwise known as ethanoic acid, methanecarboxylic acid, hydrogen acetate or ethylic acid, this organic compound is...
Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Definition Amino acids are the building blocks of polypeptides and proteins and play important roles in metabolic pathway, gene expression, and cell signal transduction regulation....
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Branched Chain Amino Acids

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric Acid

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Bile salt action in the gut

Bile Salts

Definition Bile salts are found in bile, a secretion produced by liver cells to aid digestion. Although bile is 95% water, bile salts are its...
The salivary glands

Submandibular Gland

Definition Submandibular glands are the second-largest salivary gland type, producing around 65% of our saliva when unstimulated (at rest). Located under the jaw, the exocrine...
Metaphase I

Metaphase I

Definition The first metaphase of meisosis I encompasses the alignment of paired chromosomes along the center (metaphase plate) of a cell, ensuring that two complete...
Prophase II

Prophase II

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Aldosterone

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Isotonic

Isotonic Definition

Isotonic is a term used to describe solutions and chemistry and, sometimes, muscles in human biology.

In chemistry, a solution is said to be isotonic when it has the same concentration of solutes as another solution across a semipermeable membrane.

The use of isotonic in human anatomy is used more rarely. However, it describes muscles that have the same tone as “normal” comparisons, or interior-organ fluid levels that are the same as the fluid levels outside that organ’s outer wall or exterior membrane.

Examples of Isotonic

Alcohol Proof

It’s no secret that a shot (appx. 1 oz.) of beer produces affects us less, physically, than a shot of whiskey. This is because whiskey has more alcohol content by volume, or a higher proof, than beer. When expressed in scientific terms, whiskey has a greater concentration of ethanol, the molecule responsible for alcohol’s effect, than beer. More simply, whiskey is hypertonic to beer and beer, conversely, is hypotonic to whiskey.

The difference in proofs between different types of alcoholic beverage is not always so severe. For example, there are several low-alcohol varieties of wine that have the same proof as beer. If a low-alcohol wine has the same proof as beer, it is isotonic to, or having the same ethanol concentration as, beer.

Relieving Dehydration

A saline solution consists of water mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl). Saline solutions are often administered to hospital patients experiencing severe dehydration, or who cannot achieve adequate fluid intake through traditional consumption.

An isotonic saline solution is most commonly administered to patients experiencing extreme dehydration. Unlike hypertonic and hypotonic saline solutions, isotonic saline solutions have the same concentration of NaCl as cellular fluids in the human body.

Because they have the same concentration of NaCl as the isotonic saline solution, cells do not shrink by losing more water, nor do they risk edema, or swelling, with excess water. By maintaining consistency of cellular size, isotonic saline solutions reduce the risk of potentially-fatal health problems, like heart failure, associated with extreme rehydration.

Isotonic Exercises

When a physical activity is considered isotonic, it involves a lifting phase and a lowering phase. Isotonic muscles, on the other hand, have the same muscle tone.

Bicep curls are an isotonic activity, because they involve raising the arm and lowering it, to build muscle. However, they may not contribute to isotonic muscles, because the person performing the exercise may dedicate more focus to the right or the left bicep.

Push-ups, on the other hand are an isotonic activity that contribute to isotonic muscles. Push-ups are isotonic because they involve raising the body and lowering it in a plank position. They produce isotonic muscles because they work both sides of the body equally, when performed correctly.

To clarify, push-ups are not isotonic in the sense that they are of the same concentration or tone as another exercise. However, they produce isotonic muscles, which have the same tone.

  • Hypertonic – A solution having a greater concentration of a solute than a solution across a semipermeable membrane, or a muscle having greater tone than another, like muscle.
  • Hypotonic – A solution having a lower concentration of a solute than a solution across a semipermeable membrane, or a muscle having less tone than another, like muscle.

Quiz

1. A variety of beer is 5 proof and a variety of wine is also 5 proof. These alcoholic beverages are considered isotonic because _________.
A. The beer has a greater concentration of ethanol than the wine.
B. The wine has a greater concentration of ethanol than the beer.
C. They are not isotonic.
D. The beer and the wine have the same concentration of alcohol.

Answer to Question #1
D is correct. Alcoholic beverages are considered isotonic when they have the same proof, or concentration of alcohol by volume.

2. Isotonic saline solutions are preferred over hypertonic or hypotonic saline solutions when treating dehydration because _________.
A. Isotonic saline solutions do not cause cells to shrink from further dehydration, nor do they cause them to swell from over-hydration.
B. Isotonic saline solutions cause cells to shrink, making it more difficult to over-hydrate them.
C. Isotonic saline solutions cause cells to swell, making it more difficult to dehydrate them again.
D. Isotonic saline solutions are not preferred over any other saline solution.

Answer to Question #2
A is correct. Isotonic saline solutions keep cells from shrinking, or becoming more dehydrated. They also keep cells from swelling which, if too severe, can contribute to heart failure.

3. Isotonic solutions have a _________ concentration of a solute than hypertonic solutions.
A. Similar
B. Higher
C. Lower
D. More varied

Answer to Question #3
C is correct. Isotonic solutions have a lower concentration of a solute than hypertonic solutions. Hypertonic solutions have a higher concentration of a solute than a similar solution, while isotonic solutions have the same concentration of a solute as a similar solution.