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The Coyote and The Badger

The Coyote and The Badger

A very interesting clip just blew up the internet! If you haven’t seen this video of the coyote and the badger in your feed...
Gardnerella vaginalis

Gardnerella Vaginalis

Definition Gardnerella vaginalis is the name of a micro-aerophilic coccobacillus found in the vaginal flora. Gardnerella vaginalis does not cause bacterial vaginosis (vaginal infection) unless...
Acetic Acid

Acetic Acid

Definition Acetic acid is a mildly corrosive monocarboxylic acid. Otherwise known as ethanoic acid, methanecarboxylic acid, hydrogen acetate or ethylic acid, this organic compound is...
Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Definition Amino acids are the building blocks of polypeptides and proteins and play important roles in metabolic pathway, gene expression, and cell signal transduction regulation....
BCAA supplements: a muscle myth?

Branched Chain Amino Acids

Definition The branched-chain amino acids or BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three of the nine nutritionally essential amino acids. These three ingredients form a...
Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric Acid

Definition Sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) is a corrosive mineral acid with an oily, glassy appearance that gave it its earlier name of oil of vitriol....
Bile salt action in the gut

Bile Salts

Definition Bile salts are found in bile, a secretion produced by liver cells to aid digestion. Although bile is 95% water, bile salts are its...
The salivary glands

Submandibular Gland

Definition Submandibular glands are the second-largest salivary gland type, producing around 65% of our saliva when unstimulated (at rest). Located under the jaw, the exocrine...
Metaphase I

Metaphase I

Definition The first metaphase of meisosis I encompasses the alignment of paired chromosomes along the center (metaphase plate) of a cell, ensuring that two complete...
Prophase II

Prophase II

Definition During prophase II of meiosis II, four important steps occur. These are the condensing of chromatin into chromosomes, disintegration of the nuclear envelope, migration...

Bipedal Animals

The term bipedal comes from Latin and loosely translates to “two feet.” Bipedalism is a form of locomotion for organisms that live on land and can be in the form of running, walking and/or hopping. Bipedalism can also describe animals that stand on two feet but do not necessarily walk or run that way. Some animals walk on two feet all the time while other animals are quadrupeds and do it only intermittently. Bipedalism offers several advantages to species. For example, in humans, walking upright raises the head which gives a better view for seeing dangers and approaching predators.

Evolutionary theories about how and when animals became bipedal are abundant, with at least 12 ideas currently being studied. One theory explains that humans may have developed bipedalism in order to carry food to share with other group members.


There is no evidence that any amphibians, either modern day or in the fossil record, are or ever have been bipedal.


Lizards often adopt a bipedal stance for running away from predators. One example of this the spiny-tailed iguana which is known as the world’s fastest lizard. The fossil record shows that the first bipedal animal on Earth was a reptile known as Eudibamus which lived about 290 million years ago.

The image above shows the first known bipedal animal Eudibamus which lived about 290 million years ago.


All birds display bipedalism. This makes sense because of their evolutionary relationship to the dinosaurs who were mostly bipedal.


Nearly all primates are capable of bipedalism, although most spend the majority of their time on all fours. Primates move bipedally but they also use bipedalism to stand up on their hind legs to reach food and look for predators. Some examples are baboons, bonobos, chimpanzees and gibbons. Other mammals such as beavers, raccoons, mice and rats squat on their back legs while eating, and raccoons and beavers walk bipedally when carrying things. Other bipedal mammals are rabbits, bears, meerkats and ground squirrels. Kangaroos and wallabies are examples of bipedal marsupials.


  • Bipedalism. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved July 19, 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipedalism